Personal information management services (PIMS) are an emerging class of digital tools designed to help people manage and use data about themselves. At the core of this is information about your identity and credentials, without which you cannot prove who you are or that you have certain attributes. This is a boring but necessary part of accessing services, claiming benefits and compensation, and a whole range of other general ‘life admin’ tasks.
Currently the infrastructure for managing these processes is stuck somewhere in the Victorian era, dominated by rubber stamps, handwritten signatures and paper forms, dealt with through face-to-face interactions with administrators and shipped around through snail mail. A new wave of technology aims to radically simplify this infrastructure through digital identities, certificates and credentials. Examples include GOV.UK Verify, the UK government identity scheme, and services like MiiCard and Mydex which allow individuals to store and re-use digital proofs of identity and status. The potential savings from these new services are estimated at £3 billion in the UK alone (disclosure: I was part of the research team behind this report).
Yesterday I learned a powerful first-hand lesson about the current state of identity management, and the dire need for PIMS to replace it. It all started when I realised that a train ticket, which I’d bought in advance, would be invalid because my discount rail card expired before the date of travel. After discovering I could not simply pay off the excess to upgrade to a regular ticket, I realised my only option would be to renew the railcard.
That may sound simple, but it was not. To be eligible for the discount, I’d need to prove to the railcard operator that I’m currently a post-graduate student. They require a specific class of (very busy) University official to fill in, sign and stamp their paper form and verify a passport photo. There is a semi-online application system, but this still requires a University administrator to complete the paperwork and send a scanned copy, and then there’s an additional waiting time while a new railcard is sent by post from an office in Scotland.
So I’d need to make a face-to-face visit to one of the qualified University administrators with all the documents, and hope that they are available and willing to deal with them. Like many post-graduate students, I live in a different city so this involves an 190 minute, £38 train round-trip. When I arrive, the first administrator I ask to sign the documentation tells me that I will have to leave the documentation with their office for an unspecified number of days (days!) while they ‘check their system’ to verify that I am who I say I am.
I tried to communicate the absurdity of the situation: I had travelled 60 miles to get a University-branded pattern of ink stamped on a piece of paper, in order to verify my identity to the railcard company, but the University administrators couldn’t stamp said paper because they needed several days to check a database to verify that I exist and I am me – while I stand before them with my passport, driver’s license, proof of address and my student identity card.
Finally I was lucky enough to speak to another administrator whom I know personally, who was able to deal with the paperwork in a matter of seconds. In the end, the only identity system which worked was a face to face interaction predicated on interpersonal trust; a tried-and-tested protocol which pre-dates the scanned passport, the Kafka-esque rubber stamp, and the pen-pushing Victorian clerk.
Here’s how an effective digital identity system would have solved this problem. Upon enrolment, the university would issue me with a digital certificate, verifying my status as a postgraduate, which would be securely stored and regularly refreshed in my personal data store (PDS). When the time comes to renew my discount railcard, I would simply log in to my PDS and accept a connection from the railcard operator’s site. I pay the fee and they extend the validity of my existing railcard.
From the user experience perspective, that’s all there is to it – a few clicks and it’s done. In the background, there’s a bit more complexity. My PDS would receive a request from the railcard operator’s system for the relevant digital certificate (essentially a cryptographically signed token generated by the University’s system). After verifying the authenticity of the request, my PDS sends a copy of the certificate. The operator’s back-end system then checks the validity of the certificate against the public key of the issuer (in this case, the university). If it all checks out, the operator has assurance from the University that I am eligible for the discount. It should take a matter of seconds.
From a security perspective, it’s harder to fake a signature made out of cryptography than one made out of ink (ironically, it would probably have been less effort for me to forge the ink signature than to obtain it legitimately). Digital proofs can also be better for privacy, as they reveal the minimal amount of information about me that the railcard operator needs to determine my eligibility, and the data is only shared when I permit it.
Identity infrastructure is important for reasons beyond convenience and security – it’s also about equality and access. I’m lucky that I can afford to pay the costs when these boring parts of ‘life admin’ go wrong – paying for a full price ticket wouldn’t have put my bank balance in the red. But if you’re at the bottom of the economic ladder, you have much more to lose when you can’t access the discounted services, benefits and compensation you are entitled to. Reforming our outdated systems could therefore have a disproportionately positive impact for the least well-off.